Arthritis of the Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint

There are numerous types of arthritis; however, the form usually found in the AC joint is osteoarthritis (OA). The majority of arthritis cases involving the acromioclavicular joint are the result of previous trauma, infection, or wear-and-tear, all of which can lead to the development of OA.

Osteoarthritis is categorized as either primary or secondary. Primary OA refers to a generalized condition brought on by normal wear-and-tear that affects various joints throughout the body; whereas, secondary osteoarthritis refers to arthritis stemming from a previous trauma to the joint. Since injuries to the AC joint are common throughout the athletic society, secondary OA is frequently seen within the sports medicine community.

The pain associated with osteoarthritis is usually constant and localized to the affected joint. This pain may be caused by inflammation or muscle strains caused by impact to the shoulder.

Rotator Cuff Tear

There are four rotator cuff tendons in the shoulder. If any of these four tendons tear, pain and restricted movement of the affected arm results. A tear can occur due to sudden injury or over time because of a wearing down caused by repetitive motion.

A sudden tear typically occurs when excessive force is placed on the shoulder. This force may be caused by the lifting of an extremely heavy object or while falling forward on an extended arm.

Rotator cuff injuries frequently occur while an individual is participating in a sporting event. Some of the repetitive movements known to cause rotator cuff injuries include forceful pulling or repeated overhead motions. In addition, athletes who make repetitive throws (pitchers and quarterbacks) or swinging motions (swimmers, volleyball and rugby players) are at an increased risk of suffering a rotator cuff injury.

Labral Tear

There are three bones in the shoulder that work together in a ball-and-socket joint. The labrum is a thick band of soft tissue that surrounds the shoulder socket, helping to stabilize the joint. The labrum also serves as a cushion between the bones; therefore, if it tears, some of that cushioning is lost.

A labrum tear usually occurs due to overuse, but can also result from injury or normal wear-and-tear:

Injury – If an individual slips and breaks the fall with an outstretched arm, the force that is placed on the extended arm during impact can cause a labral tear.

Overuse – If the same movement is performed repeatedly, the labrum may tear.

Normal wear-and-tear – Daily wear-and-tear on the labrum can cause degeneration, increasing the likelihood of a future labral tear.

Symptoms associated with a labrum tear include weakness, decreased mobility, the feeling that the shoulder is unstable, intermittent pain and/or a grinding, catching, or locking of the shoulder.


Biceps tendinitis is a condition affecting the thick, rope-like tendon that connects the biceps tendon to the top of the shoulder. Overuse through repetitive motion, wear-and-tear or a sudden injury can lead to biceps tendinitis. Sports activities requiring repetitive movements can also cause tendinitis. Athletes that frequently develop biceps tendinitis are golfers, swimmers and basketball players. Symptoms of this condition include weakness upon twisting the arm or bending the elbow, as well as an aching-type pain that increases with use.

Request Consultation

If you are suffering with lingering or unexplained shoulder pain, contact Dr. Joshua G. Hackel to schedule an initial consultation. Dr. Hackel provides patients with non-surgical and minimally-invasive procedures for pain relief and regeneration. He specializes in musculoskeletal ultrasound for the diagnosis and treatment of orthopaedic and musculoskeletal injuries.

Dr. Hackel is a dedicated physician who concentrates on providing his patients with the most innovative diagnostic and pain relief treatment options available. Each patient receives a custom-tailored treatment plan that is specifically designed to meet his or her needs. The caring staff and medical professionals at the Andrews Institute in Gulf Breeze, Florida, work together to create coordinating multidisciplinary rehabilitative treatment programs utilizing a variety of procedures and techniques.

Treatment programs may include bone marrow- and adipose-derived stem-cell therapy, platelet-rich plasma injections, and ultrasound-guided diagnostic and/or therapeutic injections to the tendon sheaths, muscles, joints and/or the bursae. Dr. Hackel also offers detailed physical rehabilitation plans, prescriptions and can recommend nutritional supplements to maximize your health and wellness. To schedule an initial consultation with Dr. Joshua G. Hackel at the Andrews Institute, please call 850-916-8783. The address for Dr. Hackel’s office at the Andrews Institute is 1040 Gulf Breeze Parkway, Suite 200, Gulf Breeze, Florida 32561.

Let us know how we can help you feel your best.